Amino Acid L-Serine in Preventing Neurodegenerative Diseases Associated with BMAA

In rats, histidine supplementation of low-protein diets leads to depression of growth and food intake; these effects are moderated with higher-protein diets (1). More importantly, high histidine intake in animals resulted in hyperlipidemia, hypercholesterolemia, and enlarged liver (2,69,70). Reduced plasma copper was also reported, and the hypercholesterolemia was reversed by dietary copper supplementation (71). the Life Sciences Research Office (LSRO; ref. 4), and the Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine (FNB; ref. 5). Unlike the previous reviews, which concentrated mainly on literature from animals studies, these reports focused more on the safety of human consumption.

Sugiura et al. similarly found that taurine administration before strenuous exercise reduces muscle DNA damage likely via down-regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and consequent reduction of nitrosative inflammation [56]. The protective effects of taurine supplementation are due to a long term modulatory effect, likely in relation to its muscle uptake and intracellular levels.

Molecular size markers are given in kilodaltons. Two Tg(Δ23-134) lines, designated H (high) and L (low), were found to be positive for transgene expression by RT-PCR (data not shown) and Western blotting (Fig. 2A). The H and L lines express Δ23-134 PrP at ∼2 and 0.5 times the level of endogenous PrP, respectively.

Although very rare, protein poisoning can be fatal because of these increased levels. Attenuation of the protein wasting associated with bed rest by branched-chain amino acids. Oral supplementation of branched-chain amino acid improves nutritional status in elderly patients on chronic haemodialysis. Effects of administration of oral branched-chain amino acids on anorexia and caloric intake in cancer patients.

In parallel, a left-shift of the steady-state inactivation curve has been observed, indicating the ability of taurine to stabilize the blocked channels in the inactivated state [34, 41 Desaphy and Conte Camerino, unpublished observation]. This peculiar effect of taurine on Nav1.4 channel is similar to what has been observed on cardiac sodium currents [42, 43] and underlines a complex action of the amino acid on sodium channel gating and kinetic. Our extensive structure-activity relationship studies of inhibitors of Nav1.4 channel allow to predict that the anesthetic-like action of taurine is mediated by the amino group, a main pharmacophore moiety in sodium channel blockers [44-47]. The dual ability of taurine to open chloride channels and to block sodium channels envisages a greater therapeutic action of the amino acid in myotonic states related to gain-of-function mutations of sodium channels, such as Sodium Channel Myotonia and Paramyotonia Congenita. The verification that taurine is able to compensate mutation-related biophysical alterations of Nav1.4 channels will be helpful at this regard, and is part of future projects of our laboratory.

Replacing carbs with protein may lead to a nutritional imbalance because complex carbs, such as beans and whole grains, are packed with fiber, vitamins and minerals. High intake of methionine can boost blood levels of another amino acid, homocysteine. Too much homocysteine damages blood vessels and may increase the risk of blood clots, notes

This study confirmed the antagonism existing between K and Mg and synergism existing between the P and Mg. The amino acid content increased in tea leaf up to 1000 mg treatment and then gradually decreased. Lysine supplementation should not be used in patients with too much lysine in the blood or urine.

Some potential toxins may be passed along a food chain via animal intermediates. The increased interest in herbal medicines in the Western countries will increase exposure to such compounds. The amino group contains nitrogen, which exists in the form of ammonia after it’s cleaved from the original amino acid. This toxic ammonia must be removed from the body, so it binds with another amino acid, then goes to the liver.

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