This study applies both bottom-up and top-down methods to better quantify agricultural ammonia sources in China using observations from satellite and surface networks interpreted by a chemical transport model. Our estimate of annual Chinese anthropogenic ammonia emission is 11.7 tg (teragram) for 2008 with a strong seasonality peak in summer. A numerical model also used for operational weather forecast was applied to investigate the impact of contrails and contrail cirrus on the radiative fluxes at the earth’s surface. Accounting for contrails produced by aircraft enables the model to simulate high clouds that are otherwise missing. In a case study, we find that the effect of these extra clouds is to reduce the incoming shortwave radiation at the surface as well as the production of photovoltaic power by up to 10 %.
Residual Effects of Repeated Bully Victimization Before the Age of 12 on Adolescent Functioning
In the second phase of the intervention research, namely the collection and synthesis of data, the opinions of professional persons were sought in a focus group regarding the essence of the problem as well as to identify functional elements that needed to be included in the intervention. In order to refine the intervention prototype, it was important for the voices of the victims of bullying participants to be heard about their experience and management of bullying behaviour, and to discuss alternative ways of managing bullying.
Pupil-class determinants of aggressive and victim behaviour in pupils
Given these insights, greater connections between bullying and gang prevention efforts may be worthwhile. Bullying and victimization among school children are a global health problem, that has great impact on children’s mental health.
Bullies tended to be male and to have low pro-social behaviour, but these were largely characteristics of children who were only bullies. Victims tended to be female and to have low self-esteem, but these were largely characteristics of children who were only victims.
This article provides the first detailed examination of the nature and prevalence of peer victimisation and bullying behaviour among students in Grades 6 to 9 in 20 schools in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Questionnaires designed to assess the prevalence of different forms of bullying, as experienced by students and as perpetrated by their peers, were answered anonymously by 841 boys and 938 girls.
The students also completed a measure of mental health, the General Health Questionnaire, and answered questions to assess their frequency of physical complaints and perceived consequences of adverse treatment by peers at school. In general, peer- victimized girls reported a higher incidence of emotional distress and more perceived adverse health effects. Compared with ‘others’ , victims of both sexes indicated significantly worse mental and physical health. Among boys only, bullies consistently reported poorer health. Explanations for health effects and reported gender differences are discussed in relation to the consequences of stress engendered by peer victimization at school as well as suggested differences in the nature and implications of bullying behaviours employed by boys and girls.
Analyses indicated that the aggressive victim group had experienced more punitive, hostile, and abusive family treatment than the other groups. In contrast, the nonvictimized aggressive group had a history of greater exposure to adult aggression and conflict, but not victimization by adults, than did the normative group, whereas the passive victim group did not differ from the normative group on any home environment variable.
The simulation results for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons confirm progress in modelling semivolatile species, verified by comparison with surface monitoring data. The significance of new modelling features for tracer distributions was quantified in a sensitivity study. Based on high-resolution regional climate models we investigate European climate change at 1.5 and 2 °C of global warming compared to pre-industrial levels. Considerable near-surface warming exceeding that of the global mean is found for most of Europe, already at the lower 1.5 °C of warming level. Changes in precipitation and near-surface wind speed are identified.