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We studied the effect of different levels of Ni on growth and micronutrient metal (copper, manganese, zinc & nickel) uptake by maize plants. Maize (cv. Neelam) was grown in pre-washed river-bed sand.

However, ELA was never detected in LA39 treated bindweed or crop plants, and the ELA content in the applied biocontrol product is far too low to result in a toxic concentration in the environment. Furthermore, ELA is quickly degraded by sunlight.

At the higher nickel concentration, S. flavidum-infected seedlings weighed 86% of controls without nickel, while the other seedlings weighed only 52 to 61 % of control. The good growth of S.

Variations among and within tree and ECM fungal species in the forms of N taken up and utilized are highlighted. Conclusions include recommendations for including ECM fungi in forest restoration projects. The roots of most plants are colonized by symbiotic fungi to form mycorrhiza, which play a critical role in the capture of nutrients from the soil and therefore in plant nutrition.

Detailed information is lacking on the colonization and development of ECM on host root systems, and the subsequent physiology and ecology of the host-fungus symbiosis. This chapter attempts to summarize current knowledge in order to present a starting point for further studies on members of this important genus. Several weeds such as the bindweeds Convolvulus arvensis and Calystegia sepium, which belong to the economically most important weeds, are difficult to control with conventional physical and chemical methods.

Serpentine soil is distributed throughout Japan and is characterized by excessive Mg and heavy metals (Ni, Cr, and Co) which can lead to suppressed plant growth. We examined the tolerance of the two Betula species by planting seedlings in serpentine and non-serpentine (brown forest) soils. The dry mass of each organ was suppressed in both birches planted in serpentine soil, and the photosynthetic rate was reduced by accumulation of Ni. Also, uptakes of K and Ca were inhibited by accumulation of Mg, Ni, Cr and Co. B.

Biochemical parameters such as chlorophyll, carotenoids, soluble sugar, and protein content also decreased with the increase in the concentration of nickel chloride. But the content of free amino acid, proline and leaf nitrate increased with the increase in the concentration of nickel chloride.

This study aims to evaluate the accumulation of Cd, Ni and Pb by some halophyte and field crops plants from the contaminated soils. A soil sample was collected from Ellwan, Assiut, Egypt where the soils have been irrigated with preliminary untreated sewage waste water for more than 50 years.

in insects. Although the lack of the endosymbiotic bacteria cannot be considered as the sole cause of the deformation or reduction of wings , one might suggest that Wolbachia sp. could play a protective role in the ontogenetic development of apollo butterfly . Brilliant iridescence of Morpho butterfly wing scales is due to both a thin film lower lamina and a multilayered upper lamina.

Corn and sunflower plants were grown in hydroponic culture and treated with various levels of Pb, Cd, Ni, and Tl salts. Net photosynthesis, transpiration and toxic metal ion concentration of leaf material and total plant biomass was measured.

Mycorrhizal Symbiosis is recognized as the definitive work in this area. Since the last edition was published there have been major advances in the field, particularly in the area of molecular biology, and the new edition has been fully revised and updated to incorporate these exciting new developments. Over 50% new material . Includes expanded color plate section .

ermanii has the high advantage of regenerating in serpentine soil. The minerals boron (B), cobalt (Co), molybdenum (Mo) and Nickel (Ni) are beneficial to plant in trace amounts, but excess levels of these cause toxicity limiting crop production. An attempt was made to review the phytotoxicity symptoms, effects on growth and physiology and tolerance and amelioration of these toxicities in crop plants.

The outlined behavior, long thought to be unique to butterflies , is likely to be widespread in Castniidae implying a novel, unparalleled butterfly -like reproductive behavior in moths. This will also have practical implications in applied entomology since it signifies that the monitoring/control of castniid pests should not be based on the use of female-produced pheromones, as it is usually done in many moths. may differ, the resulting areas of peak turnover in species show correspondence among three different taxa (plants, birds and butterflies ).

In this study, we discuss a way to control the pitching motion by flexing the body of the wing -body model like an actual butterfly . The body of the model is composed of two straight rigid rod connected by a rotary actuator. It is found that the pitching angle is suppressed in the range of +/-5° by using the proportional-plus-integral-plus-derivative (PID) control for the input torque of the rotary actuator. Nanofabrication and coloration study of artificial Morpho butterfly wings with aligned lamellae layers.

The results are discussed in relation to the culture technique employed. from low latitude (warmer climate populations have relatively fast intrinsic growth and development rates compared to those from cooler climates. These synergistic effects of genotype and temperature across the landscape (co-gradient variation are likely to accentuate phenotypic variation in these traits, and this interaction must be accounted for when predicting how H. merope will respond to temperature change through time. These results highlight the importance of understanding how variation in life-history traits may arise in response to environmental change. Without this knowledge, we may fail to detect whether organisms are tracking environmental change, and if they are, whether it is by plasticity, adaptation or both. Effects of Increased Flight on the Energetics and Life History of the Butterfly Speyeria mormonia. sampled in seven sites across 3341Â ha. We used wing -thorax ratio as a proxy for flight capacity and hierarchical Bayesian modelling to estimate stratum preference.

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