Dietary fiber

This can be further exploited to optimise both their techno-functional and physiological properties. Diabetes is characterized by hyperphagia and increased absorption of nutrients from the small intestine coupled with inadequate insulin secretion. Ingestion of fermentable fiber by non-diabetic rats is associated with increased intestinal proglucagon mRNA and greater postprandial release of glucagon-like peptide (GLP-1). To determine if food intake and fiber fermentability had similar effects on intestinal proglucagon mRNA in diabetic rats, diets containing cellulose (CEL) or rhubarb (RH) were fed to streptozotocin-diabetic Sprague-Dawley rats (Sz-SD), Sz-SD pair-fed to non-diabetic SD controls, and BB diabetic rats (10/treatment) for 14d. Jejunal, ileal and colonic weights were significantly affected by food intake and ileal weight was greater in RH-fed rats.

In biscuit production, the biscuits with medium eGI (61.82-67.31) was obtained and the increase of ERS-enriched flour proportion increased the ERS content of biscuits, decreased the eGI, hardness and fracturability. During storage, while the light colour and moisture content of biscuits increased; eGI, hardness and fracturability decreased.

On the other hand, most of them need to be broken down by the digestive tract’s enzymes before they can be absorbed. Some of them-cellulose, for instance-are almost impossible for humans to digest, but this indigestibility is useful since the colon needs a certain amount of bulk, or roughage, to perform at its best. Carbohydrates are naturally occurring compounds composed of carbon , hydrogen , and oxygen . The carbohydrate group includes sugars, starches, cellulose , and a number of other chemically related substances. For the most part, these carbohydrates are produced by green plants through the process known as photosynthesis .

The three most nutritionally important of these are sucrose (ordinary table sugar), maltose (derived from starch), and lactose, which is formed in the mammary glands and is the only sugar not found in plants. In the digestive tract, specific enzymes split all of these sugars into the more easily absorbed monosaccharides. If needed for future energy use, glucose units are typically squeezed together into larger, more slowly absorbed units and stored as polysaccharides, whose molecules often contain a hundred times the number of glucose units as do the simple sugars. These highly complex carbohydrates include dextrin, starch, cellulose, and glycogen. More efficient and more stable than the simple sugars, they are much easier to store.

The potential use of various commercial fibres (carob fibre, inulin and pea fibre), as fibre-enriching agents in breadmaking, is reported. The effects of the addition of these fibres to wheat flour on the viscoelastic properties of dough and both mixing and proofing behaviour is presented. Bread evaluation revealed that carob and pea fibre supplementation, although decreasing specific loaf volume (very slightly in the case of carob fibre), conferred softness to the bread crumbs. In addition, sensory evaluation showed that consumer panellists judged these fibre-enriched breads as acceptable.

This increases the time the food is in the small intestine, thus increasing the chance of nutrients being absorbed. It is believed that soluble fiber plays a role in lowering blood LDL cholesterol.

Carbohydrates are essential to the healthy functioning of the human body for athletes and sedentary persons alike. It is in this context that the so-called “low-carb” diets, such as the popular Atkins diet, must be understood.

This rather underresearched area has other applications, for example, flavor encapsulation and preservation of bioactive molecules in glassy polysaccharide matrices.A second example relates to the development of minced fish products which are made traditionally with added starch but fail to offer a new marketing position. The eating quality of processed fish products can be improved by including in the formulation the right amount and type of soluble-fibre polysaccharides (e.g., κ-carrageenan or low methoxy pectin) thus taking advantage of their multifaceted functionality as instrumental/sensory texture modifiers. Finally, in oriental foods, such as instant-rice noodle, gum ghatti and fenugreek gum have been utilized in an effort to improve textural attributes and mouthfeel. In addition, α-amylase inhibition by incorporation of green-tea extracts has been considered as an avenue for glycemic response reduction in model starch systems. Plant‐based foods have a considerable quantity of bioactive moieties which provide nutritional benefits.


In the digestive tract, carbohydrates are broken down into the monosaccharide glucose, which provides energy for the body’s cells and tissues. Glucose is the body’s primary source of fuel. Starch and cellulose differ in the way the glucose molecules are bonded together.

Polysaccharides as Food Additives

These carbohydrates – from hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin in whole grains and vegetables – add bulk to the foods passing through your gut and stimulate the passage of waste products out of your large intestine. In this way, insoluble fiber helps regulate your bowel movements and can reduce instances of constipation and hemorrhoids. In addition, moving waste out of your bowels more quickly can lower your chances of digestive disease, such as colon cancer. The increased bulk associated with insoluble fiber can also help you feel satisfied and full from the foods you eat, which can assist with preventing overeating and weight gain.


Indigestible complex carbohydrates (also known as plant fibers) are components of plants that you cannot break down with your digestive juices and enzymes for absorption into your bloodstream. Digestible complex carbohydrates are absorbed into your bloodstream more gradually than simple sugars, and are therefore less likely to cause problems associated with blood sugar regulation. Although your body can obtain all of the energy that it needs from dietary protein and fat, the most efficient source of fuel for your cells are carbohydrates.

Fruits and vegetables are a fabulous source of naturally occurring antioxidants. When you find these ingredients in a kibble (or canned food), they will be cooked and therefore readily digestible. For home-prepared diets, it’s essential to cook these grains well, often soaking overnight, to increase digestibility.

Grapes, passion fruit, orange and pomegranate were analyzed for crude protein, lipid, moisture, mineral residue, non-fibrous carbohydrate, acid detergent fiber, neutral detergent fiber levels. Quantities of total tannins, flavonoids, anthocyanins were also quantified. All ointments have a varied nutritional profile with non-fibrous carbohydrates (67.36 -28.63%), Neutral Detergent Fiber (48.18 -18.93%), Acid Detergent Fiber (32.28 -11.64%). All phytochemicals were detected in all bagasse cultures. Flavonoid values varied among pomaces.

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