Venture Capital Investment (VCI) is the subset of private equity which is intended for investments in listed companies and firms which develop new products and technologies. VCI serves as the early stage funding (seed and start-up), or it is used for expansion of a venture (later venture). Data from national R&D surveys based on the Frascati Manual, OECD,
However, even the more industrialized countries of Croatia and Serbia suffer from weak university-industry linkages. Strong growth in the number of doctorate-holders has enabled researcher density to grow in most countries. The expenditure on intramural Development and Research increased in all the four sectors. In particular, the Business enterprises expenditure on R&D (BERD) registered a 7.5% increase on the previous year, the Higher education sector a +6.5%, the Government a +0.8% and the Private non-profit sector a +5.5%.
The direct collection of R&D data through dedicated surveys has a distinct advantage in that the concepts and definitions used can align completely with those contained in the Frascati Manual. Administrative data sources (which may include both financial data from revenue agencies as well as other types of administrative sources, such as company records) may be used as another source of information for compilation of R&D data, if the concepts, definitions and coverage used by administrative data sources are sufficiently close to those contained in the Frascati Manual. The analysis of Gross Domestic Expenditures on R&D (GERD) published by Eurostat proves that the developed and rich countries dedicate the largest proportion of GDP to R&D. Unfortunately, Poland is at the end of the list almost. R&D data are used for estimation of capitalization of R&D expenditure in the national accounts.
All expenditure is covered by it for R&D performed in the economy, including both current costs and capital expenditures for R&D. Slovenia is considered a leader in the region often. Its GERD/ GDP ratio rose from 1.63% to 2.59% between 2008 and 2013, albeit within a contracting GDP. Slovenia is also the only country in Southeast Europe where business enterprises fund and perform the majority of R&D. Although business R&D has stagnated in most other countries, R&D intensity has risen in Herzegovina and Bosnia, the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia and Serbia; as of 2012, it was close to 1% in Serbia (0.91), which was also performing better in innovation surveys.
The UNESCO Institute for Statistics (UIS) provides a guide to conducting an R&D survey for countries starting to measure R&D (please find the link in the reference section below). In addition to summarizing main concepts and definitions from the Frascati Manual, this guide presents the relevant R&D indicators, addresses common issues encountered in data collection, provides a simple project management template, and proposes generic model questionnaires for the national government, Higher education, Business enterprise and Private non-profit sectors. Data for this indicator is collected through nationally representative R&D surveys primarily, which are conducted by the national statistical offices or relevant line ministries such as the ministry of science and technology.
UTRGV and the National Center for Women in Information Technology (NCWIT) are collaborating to create a two-year plan to improve gender equality in computer science at the university. It is displayed as a matrix of performing and funding sectors often. GERD and the basis be formed by the GERD matrix of international comparisons of R&D expenditures.
The core statistics and related indicators cover innovation activities, cooperation, development, expenditures and turnover. Each survey wave may additionally include other indicators like innovation objectives or information sources and analyze further particular aspects or drivers of enterprise innovation (eco-innovation in 2008, skills and creativity in 2010). Science, innovation and technology are important drivers for the Europe 2020 growth strategy.
They also provide the accounting system within which the institutional classifications and functional distributions might be applied. The website www.innovationdata.be provides a set of indicators describing the progress made by Belgium and its Regions in the field of innovation. The website has been developed by the Federal Planning Bureau at the request of the Belgian Science Policy Office, following the Federal Government’s decision to create a transversal technology platform. The percent of GDP dedicated to R&D is the most significant indicator which notifies about the level of economic innovation in a particular country. The table below published by Eurostat depicts the data concerning Venture Capital Investment (code VENTURE) which is expressed as GDP (Gross Domestic Product at market prices).
“Research and experimental development (R&D) comprise creative and systematic work undertaken in order to increase the stock of knowledge – including knowledge of humankind, culture and society – and to devise new applications of available knowledge “(Frascati Manual, 2015 edition, par 44). Domain comprises national statistics on R&D expenditure, R&D personnel and government budget appropriations or outlays on R&D (GBAORD). Data are collected in several occasions in a year and they consist of several breakdowns such as institutional R&D performing and funding sectors, types of costs and types of R&D, fields of science and economic activities.
R&D expenditure can be disaggregated by sector of performance, source of funds, field of R&D, type of research and type of cost. The Frascati Manual provides more details related to these breakdowns (what these breakdowns/classifications are, the purposes, including user needs, the main criteria that are applied, etc). This indicator is defined as the total intramural expenditure on research and experimental development (R&D) performed in the national territory during a specific reference period expressed as a percentage of national gross domestic product (GDP). The gross domestic expenditure on R&D (GERD) indicator is used for international comparisons.
R&D data can be collected directly through surveys, through administrative data sources, or by combination of the two. The direct collection of R&D data has a distinct advantage in that the concepts and definitions used can align completely with those contained in the Frascati Manual, though this may have some cost implications. Furthermore, R&D data are not collected on a regular basis in many developing countries and that not all sectors of performance (Business enterprise, Government, Higher education, and Private non-profit) are covered. In particular, the Business enterprise sector often goes uncovered. In 2012, the total amount of the expenditure on research and development (R&D) was 495.9 million BGN, which was by 15.5% more in comparison with the previous year.
The National Statistical Institute presents the bilingual (Bulgarian/English) brochure Bulgaria 2018 to users of statistical information. The brochure is addressed to a wide range of users (international institutions, business, students, experts etc.) and changes the traditional presentation of statistical information by offering an innovative structure with a parallel translation in English. The publication contains topical statistical information about the demographic, social and economic development of the country over the 2013 – 2017 period. In 2008 the total expenditure amount to 0.49% of GDP, which is only 0.01 percentage points higher than the previous year.